Goat’s milk has a much higher concentration of particular fatty acids, but less milk protein, than cow’s milk. The higher concentration of fatty acids gives goat cheese its signature tangy flavor, and the lower amount of milk protein gives it a smoother, creamier texture.
Without as much milk protein, goat milk has trouble doing some of the crazy stuff cow milk can do. It’s not quite as strong or as stretchy as cow milk, which is why you won’t be seeing too much goat milk mozzarella—a goat’s milk cheese would just sort of fall apart.
Goat cheese’s lack of strength isn’t really a weakness; it’s just different. Its tanginess and creaminess makes it ideal for very soft cheeses, like chevre. Soft cheeses like brie can be comfortably made from goat’s milk, and the results can be fantastic. And even semi-soft cheeses, like gouda, can benefit from the creaminess of goat’s milk. Interestingly, aging goat cheese seems to mellow it out a bit; fresh chevre is about the most intensely sour goat cheese you can get.